On May 20th 1912 the Italians conquered Kos. The inhabitants welcomed them as their liberators. Soon they found out that their promise of a short occupation of the Dodecanese was insincere. The answer to the ulterior motive of the Italians was vigorous and included conjunctive resolutions with Greece.
After the treaty of Lozane the total Italian Domination of the Dodecanese was consolidated and the inhabitants of those islands were considered Italian citizens with singular citizenship. Kos became vice - governorship (Reggenza) and was under the jurisdiction of the governor (Governatore) of Rhodes. In all sectors (language, education, religion, economy etc.) there was a sweeping program of fascist italicisation of the citizens. The people of Kos, being Greek, naturally resisted. After the disastrous earthquake on April 23rd 1933 the new city of Kos was rebuilt by the Italians. The archeologists dug up and repaired a lot of monuments.
A large number of sculptures of the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman era are kept and exhibited at the archeological museum, which is at Eleftherias square. When the 2nd World War was declared, many volunteers took part in the "Dodecanese's Regiment". The Dodecanese Regiment fought with the Army of Central Macedonia (Macedonia of course referring to the original and true Macedonia of Greece and not FYROM or Skopje which has usurped the name in recent times) against the Germans. After the Italian truce (03.09.1943) there was a landing of a small English force on the island, which was accepted by the Italians in order to face a potential German attack. On October 3rd 1943 the island was conquered by German troops. A new period of terrorism and brutality began.